History

TREWS was formerly to be found at http://www.ph.adfa.edu.au/a-drake/trews. Please update your link (to http://radarentomology.com.au/).

Note: the remainder of this page is not up to date.

The first part of this page provides background information about research groups and individual researchers currently active in radar entomology. Contact information for individual members of these groups is provided through links to The Radar Entomology On-line Addressbook, while postal addresses and fax numbers are given here.

The second part gives brief accounts of organisations that have contributed to the development of radar entomology but are no longer active in the field. The third part lists some of the most important collaborating organisations.

Use the search facility to search for particular names.

Missing information is denoted by “xx”. If you can supply the required details, please advise Alistair Drake.

Currently active or retaining a capacity to work in the field:-

ASoP. The School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences at UNSW@ADFA (The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy) in Canberra, Australia has a group concentrating on development and application of Insect Monitoring Radars. Principal radar-entomology scientist: Alistair Drake. Collaboration is principally with the Australian Plague Locust Commission, the University of New England Insect Pest Management Group, and the Department of Plant Protection of Nanjing Agricultural University. This group developed from the CSIRO radar program when the latter closed in the early 1990s.

School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia.
(61)-2-62688020 (AD), (61)-2-62688785 (School Secretary) (61)-2-62688786
School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, Insect Monitoring Radars.

CAAS. The Institute of Plant Protection of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, based in Beijing, commenced observations with a scanning entomological radar in summer 1999. This new entomological radar is being used in a research program on the migration of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera in North China. Principal scientist: Dengfa Cheng. Hongqiang Feng completed a radar-entomology PhD with this group, and continues to collaborate from his current position at the Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Zhengzhou.

Institute of Plant Protection, CAAS, Beijing, 100094, CHINA.
(86)-10-62815929 (KMW) (86)-10-62894786 wukm@mail.east.net.cn (KMW).

UNBECE. The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada has developed a portable harmonic radar and diode tags for tracking pest and beneficial insects. The research is being undertaken in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Scientists involved: Bruce Colpitts (DECE), Gilles Boiteau (AA-FC).

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3, Canada.

FUB. The Institute für Biology, Neurobiology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany has a harmonic scanning entomological radar developed in conjunction with the Fachhochschule, Emden, Germany. The primary application is investigation of honeybee navigation. Scientists involved: Randolf Menzel, Uwe Greggers (both FUB-IBN), W.-D. Haass, B. Fischer (Fhs-E).

Institute für Biology, Neurobiology, Freie Universität Berlin, Konigin Luisestr, 28/30, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

JAAS. The Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, based in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, China, operated a scanning entomological radar between 1984 and 2000 (though with a break in the mid-1990s), using it mainly to study migration of oriental armyworm moths into northeastern China and also for studies of flight in two other moth species, the meadow moth and the Chinese pine moth. Principal radar-entomology scientists: Chen Rui-lu (program founder, died 1995), Bao Xiang-zhe (retired), Sun Ya-jie (current laboratory director), Zhai Bao-ping (now at Nanjing Agricultural University).

Institute of Plant Protection, JAAS, Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, 136100, P.R. China.
(86)-434-6215179 ext. 328 (SYJ) (86)-434-6214884.

Britain’s Rothamsted Research (formerly the Institute of Arable Crops Research, IACR), at Harpenden, Hertfordshire is now home to the Rothamsted Radar Entomology Unit (RREU), which is continuing the work of the former NRIRU programme. IACR collaborated closely with NRIRU from 1995, and in 2001 incorporated the radar programme itself when NRI’s support for it ceased. IACR’s interest initially focussed on studies of foraging flights of honeybees and bumble bees, using harmonic radar. In May 1999 a Vertical-Looking Radar was installed at Harpenden as part of a long-term study of insect migration over southern England. Rothamsted Research is currently engaged in two radar entomology studies funded by BBSRC. Vertical-Looking Radar is being used to study high-altitude migration of aphid predators. Harmonic-radar work on the navigational performance of honey bees was done in collaboration with FUB. Staff involved with radar-entomology: Jason Chapman, Juliet Osborne, Alan Smith; Joe Riley and Ian Woiwod were formerly associated with this group. Don Reynolds of NRI collaborates closely.

This laboratory (then Rothamsted Experiment Station, RES) had been involved in radar entomology much earlier, when it mounted an intensive project to develop an aphid monitoring radar in the early 1980s. Although an operational unit proved unachievable, this ambitious project laid much of the groundwork for the later development of Vertical-Looking Radars. Principal scientists in this project: Graham Bent, Ricardo Cuminetti.

Plant and Invertebrate Ecology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK..
(44)-1582-763133 ext. 2369 (AS) (44)-1582- 760981
alan.smith@bbsrc.ac.uk, Jason.Chapman@bbsrc.ac.uk, joe@radarent.freeserve.co.uk.

Individuals. A number of researchers have made significant contributions to radar entomology, and retain an interest in the field, but are not currently associated with any of the above radar entomology groups. Don Reynolds, formerly with NRIRU and now a Visiting Fellow there, continues his association with what is now the RREU group, G.L. (Gary) Achtemeier, now with the U.S.D.A. Forest Service at Athens, Georgia, has observed insects, especially grasshoppers, with Doppler meteorological radars. Zhai Bao-ping, formerly with JAAS and now with NAU, has worked on radar observations of the migrations of oriental armyworm in northeastern China and of brown planthoppers in central China. Wayne Rochester worked with the CSIRO and (through a collaboration) ASoP radar programs between 1990 and 1992 before moving on to computer modelling and forcasting of Helicoverpa migrations and outbreaks. R.W. Russell, working with J.W. Wilson of NCAR (see next para.) has studied insect ‘aerial plankton’ with meteorological research radars.

Radar meteorology laboratories. Modern Doppler meteorological radars routinely use “clear-air echo” to determine winds. This has revitalised interest amongst radar meteorologists in the source of clear-air reflectivity, which is often insects. Radar meteorology groups or individuals active in this area in recent years include the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS), both in the USA. The Department of Meteorology of the University of Helsinki (especially Matti Leskinen) regularly sees clear-air echo attributable to insects with its meteorological radar, and has used the radar to study insect migration.

No longer active but with a significant record of achievement in the field:-

APMRU. The Areawide Pest Management Research Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) hosted one of the most active radar-entomology research programs in the world during the 1990s, but current “radar” activity is confined to a single project: studying local dispersal of bollworm moths with a harmonic direction-finder. APMRU is based in College Station, Texas. Principal radar-entomology staff have been Ken Beerwinkle, Paul Schleider, and Wayne Wolf. John Westbrook and Ritchie Eyster have observed insects with “NEXRAD” (WSR-88) weather radars. Contact for radar entomology: John Westbrook.

Predecessor organisations of APMRU include the Crop Insect Pest Management Research Unit (CIPMRU, 1990-1994) and the Pest Control Engineering Research Unit (PCERU). Radar entomology in USDA-ARS actually started at Western Cotton Research Laboratory (WCRL) in Phoenix, Arizona around 1978. This program was moved to the Insect Biology and Population Management Research Laboratory (IBPMRL) in Tifton, Georgia in 1980. A second radar program started at PCERU in 1985. The two programs were combined and located at CIPMRU in College Station in 1991.

ARS and Wayne Wolf were also involved in radar entomology as early as 1972 and 1973, in a collaboration with the US Navy’s Naval Electronics Laboratory Center in San Diego, California.

USDA, ARS, SPARC, 2771 F&B Rd, College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A.
(1)-979-2609351 (1)-979-2609386
APMRU.

CSIRO. The Division of Entomology (now CSIRO Entomology) of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation had an active radar program for ~20 y from 1971, and through it contributed significantly to the development of knowledge about insect migration and its biometeorology. The program, which was based in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, was wound down in the early 1990s and the remaining capacity transferred to ASoP (see above). Principal scientists involved: Doug Clark (died 197x), Jerry Roffey (COPR, retired), Derek Reid (CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, retired), Alistair Drake, Wayne Rochester, Roger Farrow (retired).

Cranfield University (formerly Cranfield Institute of Technology, CIT) at Cranfield, Bedfordshire, U.K. was the home of the highly innovative group led by the late G.W. (Glen) Schaefer, radar entomology’s pioneer, until his death in 1986 (Rainey 1986). Cranfield retains an interest in the field, especially for airborne entomological radars and signal processing methods. Staff involved: Stephen Hobbs.

School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford, MK43 0AL, U.K.
(44)-1234-750111 (ext 5121 for SH) (44)-1234-751550 s.e.hobbs@cranfield.ac.uk

INHS/ISWS. The Illinois Natural History Survey and the Illinois State Water Survey mounted an intensive insect-migration research program during the mid-1980s, employing (among a variety of techniques) the CHILL S-band radar and a tracking X-band radar maintained principally for ornithological observations. Principal scientists involved: Gary Achtemeier, Keith Hendrie, Mike Irwin, Ronald Larkin, Eugene Mueller.

LUT. The Department of Physics at Loughborough University (formerly Loughborough University of Technology) in Leicestershire, U.K., is where it all started. G.W. (Glen) Schaefer’s pioneering 1968 radar expedition to Niger started here, as did subsequent trips to Sudan, Australia, and Canada. All involvement in the field ceased in 1975 with Schaefer’s transfer to CIT (see above). Principal scientist involved: the late G.W. Schaefer.

NASA. The Wallops Island, Virginia, laboratories of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center took an interest in the field in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Principal scientist involved: C.R. (Charles) Vaughn. Wallops Island radars earlier (1965a) played a key role in establishing that insects were a prime source of “clear air echo”.

NRIRU. The Radar Entomology Unit of Britain’s Natural Resources Institute was established around 1970 and was the leader in this field, with a fine record of technical innovation, productive fieldwork, and publication. NRIRU was based in Malvern, Worcestershire (separate from NRI’s main sites in London and, later, at Chatham Maritime, Kent). Principal radar-entomology staff: Don Reynolds, Joe Riley, Alan Smith, Ann Edwards.

Radar entomology work at NRI originated in a predecessor U.K.-government organisation, the Anti-Locust Research Centre (ALRC), which was based in London. ALRC was incorporated into the Centre for Overseas Pest Research (COPR) in 1971, and COPR was in turn incorporated into the Tropical Development Research Institute (TDRI) in 1983. TDRI then became first the Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute (ODNRI) in 1987 and finally simply NRI in 1990. It was sold to the University of Greenwich in 1996. NRI closed its radar entomology programme in 2001, when it was taken over by IACR. Don Reynolds remains with NRI as a Visiting Fellow.

Natural Resources Institute, Medway University Campus, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK.
(44)-1634 883223 (DR) (or (44)-1634-880088 ext. 3223)
(44)-1634 883223 D.Reynolds@gre.ac.uk.

USAElC. The Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, laboratories of the US Army Electronics Command (now CECOM) made observations of mosquitoes and other insects with US Army mortar-locating radars between 1969 and 1972. Principal scientist involved: E.L. (Emerson) Frost.

USARL. The US Army Research Laboratories at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, observed insects with its FM/CW atmospheric boundary layer profiler during the early 1990s. Principal scientist involved: Scott A. McLaughlin (now with Applied Technologies, Inc., Longmont, Colorado).

SUAS. The Department of Radioecology of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences developed a harmonic radar for studying the walking movement of diode-tagged beetles during the mid-1980s. Principal scientists involved: Daniel Mascanzoni, Henrik Wallin (Department of Plant and Forest Protection).

Organisations currently involved as major collaborators with radar entomology research groups (but without a radar entomology capability of their own):-

Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC), Canberra, Australia. An occasional collaborator with CSIRO, and a current collaborator with ASoP, on locust migration in Australia. Staff involved: Haikou Wang.

Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University (NAU), Nanjing, China. NAU has conducted extensive research on brown planthoppers and several other migratory pests of Chinese agriculture. A collaboration with NRIRU used NRIRU’s centimetric and millimetric scanning entomological radars to observe brown planthopper migration in 1988, 1990, and 1991. A new program of radar observations is planned, using a ZLC-configuration monitoring radar to be developed with technical support from ASoP. Principal scientists involved: Xia-nian Cheng (retired), Bao-ping Zhai, Xiao-xi Zhang. (These scientists and programs were formerly located in NAU’s Department of Plant Protection.)

Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University (NAU), Nanjing, Jiangsu province, 210095, China.
(86)-25 4395242 (BpZ)
(86)-25 4395246 bpzhai@njau.edu.cn.

Organisations formerly involved as collaborators in radar entomology field campaigns:-

Agricultural Aviation Research Unit (AARU). A research laboratory of CIBA-Geigy (a major agrochemical company at that time), based at Cranfield, U.K. Under then director R.J.V. (Vernon) Joyce (died 1997), AARU supported the LUT (G.W. Schaefer-led) radar entomology program in its early days through its own observation program in the Sudan Gezira and by acting as principal contractor to CFS for observations of spruce budworm migration in New Brunswick (Canada).

Carl Hayden Bee Research Center (CHBRC), Tucson, Arizona. A collaborator with APMRU (and its predecessors) on bee flight.

Canadian Forest Service (CFS). A major collaborator, host, and client for LUT and AARU during the program of radar observations of spruce budworm migration between 1973 and 1976.

Desert Locust Control Organisation of East Africa (DLCOEA), Nairobi, Kenya. DLCOEA supported some very early initiatives in radar entomology, including the first attempt (1965) to construct a radar specifically for entomological observations.

Please email revision information or suggestions for additions to Alistair Drake.

This page has not been updated since 2015 (and possibly earlier).