Bibliography up to 2000

A list of scientific publications with “significant” radar-entomology (RE) content.

Publications with only a small amount of RE material have generally been included, unless the RE content is entirely derivative (i.e. it also appears in a publication that is included in the list); publications focussing on RE are included even if they are entirely derivative. With the exception of four very early (1947-1948) notes, publications on “dot angels” or “clear-air echo” are included only if the source of reflectivity is positively identified as insects. Inevitably, some publications are borderline on one or more of these criteria. Apart from one or two early examples of historical interest, ordinary (short) abstracts of conference talks are not included; ‘extended abstracts’ (2-4 pp.) are regarded as conference publications and included.

The publications listed here almost all fall into two broad categories: those written by and for entomologists, and focussing on insect behaviours; and those written by and for radar meteorologists, and focussing on insects as one source of the echo that weather radars detect. Since the mid-1990s, there has been renewed interest among radar meteorologists in insects and other biological material as sources of atmospheric reflectivity. In many papers written by radar meteorologists, material on insects is confined to one or two paragraphs and/or one or two figures. TREWS aims to include the more important of these, but papers in which material on insect echoes is very limited will generally be omitted. Rather similarly, since about 2010 radar entomology has started to be subsumed within a broader discipline of ‘radar aeroecology’ covering also bird and bat observations; some publications that are primarily concerned with vertebrate targets contain enough material on insects to warrant inclusion here.

A small number of papers describe uses of microwave technology in rather different entomological applications, for example hand-held devices for relocating tagged insects or insects within burrows, and actographs for laboratory bioassays of insect behaviour. These papers have been included to give an indication of the breadth of entomological applications of radar and microwave technology, but such topics are not the focus of TREWS and it is not intended to continue including publications on them indefinitely.

Myres (1970) and Greneker & Corbin (1978) are earlier bibliographies of this topic. Plank (1956), Riley (1980, 1989a, 1989c), Vaughn (1985), Chapman et al. (2004), and Chapman et al. (2011) have reviewed different aspects of it, while Reynolds et al. (1997) review it (and some alternatives) as a methodology for practising entomologists. Reynolds et al. (2017), Drake & Bruderer (2017), and Noskov et al. (2021) are more recent reviews, the last incorporating literature up to 2020; Rhodes et al. (2021) discuss radar as one of several remote-sensing technologies available to entomologists. Drake & Farrow (1988) and Burt and Pedgley (1997) are reviews of the biometeorology of insect migration that draw heavily on the literature of radar entomology. Drake & Reynolds (2012) is a monograph extending over all aspects of radar entomology and the insect migratory and flight behaviours revealed through its use.

Where papers are available online and are open access, this is indicated in the entry – either by providing a ‘doi’ or a direct link. (To use the doi, copy it to the search field of your browser.) These indications are found mainly for recent papers. Some older papers may now also be freely downloadable, as many journals make all their content open access after 5 or 10 years; however, no attempt has been made to systematically identify these.

Publications are listed chronologically (alphabetically by author within year). The icons denote the type of publication – journal paper, book chapter, etc.

To search for a particular author, keyword, etc., use your browser’s “search” or “find” command.

Note. The entry of the form “ANnnnnn” or “NIB” at the end of each reference is an internal serial number required for authoring and maintenance purposes. It should be ignored.

Missing information is indicated by “***”.

For later publications, see pages Bibliography 2001-2020 and Bibliography 2021-present

List of publications in chronological order


jp Friis,HT 1947 Radar reflections from the lower atmosphere. Proc. Institute of Radio Engineers 35:494-495. [Very early observation of insect-type echoes.] AN01964

jp Gould,WB 1947 Radar reflections from the lower atmosphere. Proc. Institute of Radio Engineers 35:1105. [Very early observation of insect-type echoes.] AN01965


 Baldwin,MW 1948 Radar reflections from the lower atmosphere. Proc. of the Institute of Radio Engineers 36:363. AN01080

 Friend,AW 1948 Continuous tropospheric soundings by radar. Proc. Institute of Radio Engineers 36:501-503. [Very early observation of insect-type echoes.] AN01966


 Crawford,AB 1949 Radar reflections in the lower atmosphere. Proc. I. R. E. 37:404-405. AN00926 [First positive identification of insects as radar targets.]



 Rainey,RC 1955 Observation of desert locust swarms by radar. Nature 175:77. AN00817


 Bonham,LL, Blake,LV 1956 Radar echoes from birds and insects. Scientific Monthly 82:204-209. AN00925

 Plank,VG 1956 A Meteorological Study of Radar Angels. Geophysics Research Paper no. 52. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory: Bedford, MA. AN02099



 Tolbert,CW, Straiton,AW, Britt,CO, Gerhardt,JR 1958 Measurement and analysis of atmospheric echoes from millimeter radio wavelengths. Pp. E-9-E-16 in Proc. 7th Weather Radar Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, 17-20 November 1958. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02081



 Plank,VG 1960 Radar echoes from the atmosphere. Pp. 222-243 in Radargrammetry (D. Levine, ed.). Mcgraw Hill: New York. AN00893



 Geotis,SG 1964 On sea breeze “angels”. Pp. 6-9 in Proc. 1964 World Conference on Radio Meteorology, 14-18 September1964, Boulder, CO. ?American Meteorological Society: ?Boston. AN02092

 LaGrone,AH, Deam,AP, Walker,GB 1964 Angels, insects and weather. Radio Science Journal of Research 68D:895-901. AN00870

 Ramana-Murty,BhV, Roy,AK, Biswas,KR, Khemani,LT 1964 Observations on flying locusts by radar J. Sci. and Industrial Res. (India) 23:289-296. AN00818


Mazumdar,S, Bhaskara Rao,NS, Gupta,GR 1965 Radar and synoptic study of locust swarms over Delhi. Tech. Notes World Met. Org. 69:162-187. AN00874


 Browning,KA, Atlas,D 1966 Velocity characteristics of some clear-air dot angels. J. Atmos. Science 23:592-604. AN00882

 Chernikov,AA 1966 Some new Soviet investigations of angel echoes. Pp. 291-292 in Proc. 12th Conference on Radar Meteorology, 17-20 October 1966, Norman, OK. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston. AN02082

 Deam,AP, LaGrone,AH 1966 Quantitative observations of dot angel echoes at two frequencies. Radio Science 1:537-543. AN02094

 Glover,KM, Hardy,KR 1966 Dot angels: insects and birds. Pp. 264-268 in Proc. 12th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, 17-20 October 1966, Norman, OK. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston. AN00892

 Glover,KM, Hardy,KR, Konrad,TG, Sullivan,WN, Michaels,AS 1966 Radar observations of insects in free flight. Science 154:967-972. AN00927

 Glover,KM, Hardy,KR, Landry,CR, Konrad,TG 1966 Radar characteristics of known insects in free flight. Pp. 254-258 in Proc. 12th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, 17-20 October 1966, Norman, OK. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston. [?A conference version of AN00927?] AN00927a

 Hajovsky,RG, Deam,AP, LaGrone,AH 1966 Radar reflections from insects in the lower atmosphere. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation AP14:224-227. AN02077

 Hardy,KH, AtlasD, Glover,KM 1966 Multiwavelength backscatter from the clear atmosphere. J. Geophysical Research 71:1537-1552. AN00916

 Hardy,KR, Glover,KM 1966 24 hour history of radar angel activity at three wavelengths. Pp. 269-274 in Proc. 12th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, 17-20 October 1966, Norman, OK. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston. AN00890

 Lhermitte,RH 1966 Probing air motion byDoppler analysis of radar clear air returns. J. Atmos. Sciences 23:575-591. AN00864

 Taylor,D 1966 Radar in desert locust survey and control. DLCOEA Annual Report 3:54-60. AN02046


 Chernikov, AA, Shypyatskiy 1967 The polarization characteristics of radar “angel” echoes. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 3(2):136-143. [In Russian; English translation published by American Geophysical Union, pp. 78-81.] AN03300

 Rainey,RC1967 Radar observations of locust swarms. Science 157:98-99. AN00921


 Gorelik,AG, Uglova,LN 1968 Radar characteristics of angels. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 4(12):1235-1242. [In Russian; English translation published by American Geophysical Union, pp. 709-712.] AN03298

 Konrad,TG 1968 Radar as a tool in meteorology, entomology and ornithology. Pp. 655-665 in Proc. 5th Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, ?April 1968, ?Ann Arbor, Michigan. ?Publisher: ?Place of publication. AN02156


 Fowler,MS, LaGrone,AH 1969 Comparison of insects’ flight characteristics with observed characteristics of radar dot angels. J. Appl. Met. 8:122-127. AN00887

 Hardy,KR, Katz,I 1969 Probing the clear atmosphere with high power, high resolution radars. Proc. IEEE 57:468-480. AN00885

 Hardy,KR, Ottersten,H 1969 Radar investigations of convective patterns in the clear atmosphere. J. Atmos. Science 26:666-672. AN00881

 Lofgren,GR, Battan,LJ 1969 Polarization and vertical velocities of dot angel echoes. Journal of Applied Meteorology 8:948-951. AN02100

 Roffey,J 1969 Radar studies on the desert locust, Niger, September-October 1968. Anti-Locust Research Centre Occasional Report No. 17. AN00886

 Schaefer,GW 1969 Radar studies of locust, moth and butterfly migration in the Sahara. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond. C 34:39-40. [Also record of discussion.] AN00132


 Atlas,D, Harris,FI, Richter,JH 1970 Measurement of point target speeds with incoherent non-tracking radar: insect speeds in atmospheric waves. J. Geophysical Res. 75:7588-7595. AN00923

 Atlas,D, Metcalf,JI, Richter,JH, Gossard,EE 1970 The birth of “CAT” and microscale turbulence. Journal of Atmospheric Science 27:903-913. AN02055

 Frost,EL 1970 Tracking insect swarms by radar: a feasibility study. Proc. New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association 57:38-42. AN00878

 Haskell,PT 1970 The future of locust and grasshopper control. Outlook on Agriculture 6(4):166-174. doi:10.1177/003072707000600405 AN03834

 Myres,MT 1970 The detection of birds and insects, and the study of bird movements, with radar. Pp. 501-519 in Proc. World Conf. on Bird Hazards to Aircraft, 2-5 September 1969, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. National Research Council of Canada (Associate Committee on Bird Hazards to Aircraft): Ottawa?. AN02101

 Ottersten,H 1970 Radar angels and their relationship to meteorological factors. Final Report. Forsvarets Forskningsanstalt (FOA) Reports (Stockholm) 4(2):1-33. AN02125


 Atlas,D, Harris,FI, Richter,JH 1971 The measurement of point target speeds with incoherent non-tracking radar: insect speeds in atmospheric waves. Pp. 73-78 in Proc. 14th Int. Met. Conf., 1971,**city**, Canada. ?American Meteorological Society: Boston.? [?A conference version of  AN00923?] AN00924

 Bean,BR, McGavin,RE, Chadwick,RB, Warner,BD 1971 Preliminary results of utilizing the high resolution FM radar as a boundary-layer probe. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 1:466-473. AN00865

 Frost,EL 1971a Correlated radar and trapping studies on insect swarming over Atlantic coastal lowlands. Pp. 1905-1915 in Proc. of 7th Int. Symp. on Remote Sensing of the Environment III, **date**, **place**. **Publisher**: **Place**. AN00879

 Frost,EL 1971b Radar returns and correlated insect trapping data. Pp. 81-92 in Proc. 58th Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosqito Extermination Association, **date, **place**. **Publisher**: **Place**. AN00932


 Downing,JD, Frost,EL 1972 Recent radar observations of diurnal insect behaviour. Pp. 114-131 in Proc. 59th Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association, **date**, *place**. **Publisher: **Place**. AN00933

 Inoue,E 1972 Tracking insects by radar. Kongetsu-no-Noyako 7:34-40. [In Japanese.] AN01030

 Roffey,J 1972 Radar studies of insects. Pest. Artic. News Summs. 18:303-309. AN00929

 Schaefer,GW 1972 Radar detection of individual locusts and swarms. Pp. 379-380 in Proc. Int. Study Conf. Current and Future Problems of Acridology, London, **date** 1970. **Publisher: Place**. AN00131


 Battan,LJ 1973 Radar Observation of the Atmosphere. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. [Ch. 12.] AN00875

 Frost,EL, Robinson,J 1973 Radar entomology on the Great Plains. Pp. 160-169 in Proc. 60th Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosqito Extermination Association, **date**, Atlantic City, NJ. AN00934

 Haggis,MJ 1973 Insect flight and its relevance to the strategy of control of insect pests of cotton in the Sudan Gezira. Pest Artic. News Summs. 19(3):419-421. AN00873

 Richter,JH, Jensen,DR 1973 Radar cross-section measurements of insects. Proc. IEEE 61:143-144. AN02080

 Richter,JH, Jensen,DR, Noonkester,VR, Kreasky,JB, Stimmann,MW, Wolf,WW 1973 Remote radar sensing: atmospheric structure and insects. Science 180:1176-1178. AN00883

 Riley,JR 1973 Angular and temporal variations in the radar cross-sections of insects. Proc. IEE 120:1229-1232. AN00114


 Benninghoff,WS 1974 Aerobiology. Pp. 1-4 in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Environmental Science (DN Lapedes, ed.). McGraw-Hill: **place**. AN00872

 Campistron,B, Sauvageot,H 1974 Sur l’evolution matinale de la distribution dans l’espace des echos radar en air clair [On the evolution during the morning of the spatial distribution of radar clear-air echoes]. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des seances de l’Academie des Sciences. Serie B. Sciences physiques. 279:479-482. [In French.] AN01936

 Inoue,E 1974 Current activites in aerobiology in Japan. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 7:257-266. AN00728

 Riley,JR 1974 Radar observations of individual desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera, Locustidae)). Bulletin of Entomological Research 64:19-32. AN00115


 Blokpoel,H, Burton,J. 1975 Weather and height of nocturnal migration in eastcentral Alberta: a radar study. Bird-Banding 46:311-328. AN03317

 Campistron,B 1975 Characteristic distributions of angel echoes in the lower atmosphere and their meteorological implications. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 9:411-426. AN00922

 Gray,GR, Serafin,RJ, Atlas,D, Rinehart,RE, Boyajian,JJ 1975 Real-time color Doppler radar display. Bull. American Met. Soc. 56:580-588. AN00869

 Richter,JH, Jensen,DR 1975 Simultaneous acoustic sounder and FM-CW radar observations. Pp. 282-289 in Proc. 16th Radar Meteorology Conference, 22-24 April 1975, Houston, Texas. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN03017

 Riley,JR 1975 Collective orientation in night-flying insects. Nature 253:113-114. AN00116

 Rowland,JR, Arnold,A 1975 Vertical velocity structure and geometry of clear air convective elements. Pp. 296-303 in Proc. 16th Radar Meteorology Conference, 22-24 April 1975, Houston, Texas. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN00889


 Schaefer,GW 1976 Radar observations of insect flight. Pp. 157-197 in Insect Flight (RC Rainey, ed.). Blackwell Scientific: Oxford. AN00136



 Gossard,EE 1978 Studies of insects by high-resolution radar. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 59:1520. [Talk abstract only; talk apparently never published.] AN00935

 Greneker,EF, Corbin,MA 1978 Radar reflectivity of airborne insects: a literature survey. Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, Georgia) report. AN00860

 Lingren,PD, Sparks,AN, Raulston,JR, Wolf,WW 1978 Night vision equipment for studying nocturnal behavior of insects. 4. Applications for nocturnal studies of insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 24:206-212. AN02054

 Miller,CA, Greenbank,DO, Kettela,EG 1978 Estimated egg deposition by invading spruce budworm moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist 110:609-615. AN00163

 Yanagisawa,Z 1978 Radar observation of sea breeze fronts. Pp. 45-48 in Proc. 18th Conference on Radar Meteorology, March 28-31 1978, Atlanta, Georgia. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN00735


 Buchan,PB, Satelle,DB 1979 Radar-doppler autocorrelation analysis of insect activity. Physiological Entomology 4:103-109. AN00861

 Fisher,RA, Greenbank,DO 1979 A case study of research into insect movement: spruce budworm in New Brunswick. Pp. 220-229 in Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research (RL Rabb, GG Kennedy, eds). University Graphics: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. Carolina. AN00168

 Frost,E, Downing,J 1979 Radar observation of insects – mosquitoes. Pp. 87-112 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management… (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W. Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02066

 Glover,KM, Konrad,TG 1979 Radar observation of known and unknown clear air echoes. Pp. 113-130 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management … (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02067

 Gossard,EE, Chadwick,RB 1979 Studies of insects by high resolution radar. Pp. 268-271 in Proc. 14th Conf. on Agriculture and Forest Meteorology and 4th Conf. on Biometeorology, **place**, **date**. American Meteorol. Society: Boston. AN00891

 Rainey,R 1979 Possible impact of radar on pest management operations. Pp. 81-86 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management… (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02065

 Reid,DG, Wardhaugh,KG, Roffey,J 1979 Radar studies of insect flight at Benalla, Victoria in February 1974. CSIRO Aust. Div. Entomol. Tech. Pap. No. 16. 21 pp. AN00856

 Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR 1979 Radar observations of concentrations of insects above a river in Mali, West Africa. Ecological Entomology 4:161-174. AN00122

 Riley,JR 1979 Quantitative analysis of radar returns from insects. Pp. 131-158 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management… (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02068

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1979 Radar-based studies of the migratory flight of grasshoppers in the middle Niger area of Mali. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204:67-82. AN00119

 Schaefer,GW 1979 An airborne radar technique for the investigation and control of migrating pest insects. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 287:459-465. AN00129

 Schaefer,G, Bent,G, Cannon,R 1979 The green invasion. New Scientist 83:440-441. AN02045

 Skolnik,M 1979 Capabilities of radar as they might relate to entomological studies. Pp. 61-79 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management … (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02064

 Vaughn, CR 1979 The radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center. Pp. 161-169 in Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management… (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds). NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. AN02069

 Vaughn,CR, Wolf,WW, Klassen,W (eds) 1979 Radar, insect population ecology, and pest management. Proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia, May 2-4, 1978. NASA Conference Publication 2070. NASA Wallops Flight Center: Wallops Island, Virginia. 248 pp. AN02063

 Wolf,WW 1979 Radar program at western cotton research laboratory. Pp. 159-160 in Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management… (CR Vaughn, WW Wolf, W Klassen, eds).  NASA: Wallops Island, Virginia. 248 pp. AN00080

 Wolf,WW 1979 Entomological radar studies in the United States. Pp. 263-266 in Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research (RL Rabb, GG Kennedy, eds). University Graphics: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. Carolina. AN00077


 Gossard,E, Chadwick,R, Wolfe,D 1980 FM-CW radar observations in northeastern Colorado compared with rawinsonde-measured profile of refractive index. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL WPL-57. 34 pp. AN00906

 Greenbank,DO, Schaefer,GW, Rainey,RC 1980 Spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moth flight and dispersal: new understanding from canopy observations, radar, and aircraft. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada No. 110. 49 pp. AN00137

 Riley,JR 1980 Radar as an aid to the study of insect flight. Pp. 131-140 in A Handbook on Biotelemetry and Radio Tracking (CJ Amlaner Jr, DW MacDonald, eds). Pergamon Press: Oxford and New York. 804 pp. AN00118 [Note: published 1980, not 1979 as stated on publication itself.]

 Wilson,J, Carbone,R, Baynton,H, Serafin,R 1980 Operational application of meteorological Doppler radar. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 61:1154-1168. AN00868


 Buchan,PB, Moreton,RB 1981 Flying and walking of small insects (Musca domestica)  recorded differentially with a standing-wave radar actograph. Physiological  Entomology 6:149-155. AN00862

 Drake,VA  1981a Target density estimation in radar biology. Journal of Theoretical Biology 90:545-571. AN00102

 Drake,VA  1981b Quantitative observation and analysis procedures for a  manually operated entomological radar. CSIRO Australia Division of  Entomology Technical Paper No. 19. 41 pp. AN00103

 Drake,VA, Helm,KF, Readshaw,JL, Reid,DG 1981 Insect migration across Bass Strait during spring: a radar study. Bulletin of Entomological Research 71:449-466. AN00101

 Farrow,RA 1981 Aerial dispersal of Scelio fulgidus [Hym.: Scelionidae], parasite of eggs of locusts and grasshoppers [Ort.: Acrididae]. Entomophaga,26:349-355. AN00144

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Farmery,MJ 1981 Radar observations of Spodoptera exempta Kenya, March-April 1979. COPR Miscellaneous Report No 54. 43 pp. AN00117

 Takeda,T, Murabayashi,S 1981 Observation of clear-air echoes with 3.2-cm radars. J. Metorol. Soc. Japan 59:864-874. AN00884


 Adams,PM 1982 Radar tracks insect migrations. Agricultural Research (October):14-15. AN00079

 Drake,VA 1982a The CSIRO entomological radar: a remote-sensing instrument for insect migration research. Pp. 63-73 in Scientific Instruments in Primary Production. Australian Scientific Industry Association: Melbourne. AN00105

 Drake,VA 1982b Insects in the sea-breeze front at Canberra: a radar study. Weather 37:134-143. AN00104

 Farrow,RA 1982 Aerial dispersal of microinsects. Pp. 51-55 in Proc. 3rd Australasian Conf. Grassl. Invert. Ecol., Adelaide, 1981 (KE Lee, ed.). **Publisher: Place**. AN00140

 Lingren,PD, Raulston,JR, Sparks,AN, Wolf,WW 1982 Insect monitoring technology for evaluation of suppression via pheromone systems. Pp. 171-193 (ch. 6) in ?Insect Suppression with Controlled Release Pheromone Systems (AF Kydonieus, M Beroja, eds). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. AN00078

 Lingren,PD, Wolf,WW 1982 Nocturnal activity of the tobacco budworm and other insects. Pp. 211-228 in Biometeorology in Integrated Pest Management (JL Hatfield & IJ Thomason, eds). Academic Press: ***. AN00073

 Pedgley,DE 1982 Windborne Pests and Diseases: Meteorology of Airborne Organisms. Ellis Horwood: Chichester. 250 pp. AN00787

 Pedgley,DE, Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR, Tucker,MR 1982 Flying insects reveal small-scale wind systems. Weather 37:295-306. AN00121

 Raulston,JR, Wolf,WW, Lingren,PD, Sparks,AN 1982 Migration as a factor in Heliothis management. Pp. 61-73 in Proc. Int. Workshop on Heliothis Management (ICRISAT, ed.). Patancheru A.P.: India. AN00074

 Wolf,WW, Pair,SD 1982 Entomological radar: observations during 1981. Paper No. 82-1010 for Presentation at the 1982 Summer Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, **place**. 21 pp. AN00294


 Chadwick,RB, Gossard,EE 1983 Radar remote sensing of the clear atmosphere – review and applications. Proc. IEEE 71:738-753. AN00866

 Dickison,RBB, Haggis,MJ, Rainey,RC 1983 Spruce budworm moth flight and storms: case study of a cold front system. J. Clim. Appl. Met. 22:278-286. AN00226

 Drake,VA 1983 Collective orientation by nocturnally migrating Australian plague locusts, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae): a radar study. Bulletin of Entomological Research 73:679-692. AN00106

 Drake,VA, Farrow,RA 1983 The nocturnal migration of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae): quantitative radar observations of a series of northward flights. Bulletin of Entomological Research 73:567-585. AN00107

 Gossard,EE, Strauch,RG 1983 Radar Observations of Clear Air and Clouds. Elsevier: Amsterdam. 280 pp. AN00876

 Kropfli,RA 1983 A review of microwave radar observations in the dry convective planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 26:51-67. AN00867

 Mueller,EA 1983 Differential reflectivity of birds and insects. Pp. 465-466 in Preprints, 21st Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 19-23 September 1983. American Meteorol. Society: Boston. AN02863

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1983 A long-range migration of grasshoppers observed in the Sahelian zone of Mali by two radars. Journal of Animal Ecology 52:167-183. AN00120

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Farmery,MJ 1983 Observations of the flight behaviour of the armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta, at an emergence site using radar and infra-red optical techniques. Ecological Entomology 8:395-418. AN00124


 Bent,GA 1984 Developments in detection of airborne aphids with radar. Pp 665-674 in Proc. 1984 British Crop Protection Conference – vol. 2 Pests and Diseases. **Publisher**: **Place**. AN00930

 Drake,VA 1984a The vertical distribution of macro-insects migrating in the nocturnal boundary layer: a radar study. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 28:353-374. AN00108

 Drake,VA 1984b Solitary wave disturbance of the marine boundary layer over Spencer Gulf revealed by radar observations of migrating insects. Aust. Met. Mag. 42:131-135. AN00110

 Farrow,RA, Dowse,JE 1984 Method of using kites to carry tow nets in the upper air for sampling migrating insects and its application to radar entomology. Bulletin of Entomological Research 74:87-95. AN00400


 Chen,RL, Bao,XZ, Wang,SY, Sun,YJ, Li,LQ, Liu,JR, Zhang,DK, Lu,J 1985 The Gongzhuling entomological radar and observations on migrations of armyworm and meadow moths. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 1985(3):93. AN00871 [A translation of this short article is available from Alistair Drake at]

 Drake,VA 1985a Solitary wave disturbances of the nocturnal boundary layer revealed by radar observations of migrating insects. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 31:269-286. AN00109

 Drake,VA 1985b Radar observations of moths migrating in a nocturnal low-level jet. Ecological Entomology 10:259-265. AN00111

 Drake,VA, Farrow,RA 1985 A radar and aerial-trapping study of an early spring migration of moths (Lepidoptera) in inland New South Wales. Aust. J. Ecology 10:223-235. AN00112

 Hendrie,LK, Irwin,ME, Liquido,NJ, Ruesink,WG, Mueller,EA, Voegtlin,DJ, Achtemeier,GL, Steiner,WM, Scott,RW 1985 Conceptual approach to modeling aphid migration. Pp. 541-582 in The Movement and Dispersal of Agriculturally Important Biotic Agents (DR MacKenzie et al., eds). Claitor’s Publishing Division: Baton Rouge, Louisiana. AN00863

 Mueller,EA, Larkin,RP 1985 Insects observed using dual-polarization radar. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technology 2:49-54. AN00920

 Riley,JR 1985 Radar cross section of insects. Proc. IEEE 73:228-232. AN00125

 Rose,DJW, Page,WW, Dewhurst,CF, Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Pedgley,DE, Tucker,MR 1985 Downwind migration of the African armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta, studied by mark-and-capture and by radar. Ecological Entomology 10:299-313. AN00123

 Schaefer,GW, Bent,GA, Allsopp,K 1985 Radar and opto-electronic measurements of the effectiveness of Rothamsted Insect Survey suction traps. Bulletin of Entomological Research 75:701-715. AN00130

 Sparks,AN, Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Pair,SD, Raulston,JR 1985 Atmospheric transport of biotic agents on a local scale. Pp. 203-216 in The Movement and Dispersal of Agriculturally Important Biotic Agents (DR MacKenzie et al., eds). Claitor’s: Baton Rouge. 611 pp. AN00071

 Vaughn,CR 1985 Birds and insects as radar targets: a review. Proc. IEEE 73:205-227. AN00816


 Dickison,RBB, Haggis,MJ, Rainey,RC, Burns,LMD 1986 Spruce budworm moth flight and storms: further studies using aircraft and radar. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 25:1600-1608. AN00931

 Farrow,RA 1986 Interactions between synoptic scale and boundary-layer meteorology on micro-insect migration. Pp. 185-195 in Insect Flight: Dispersal and Migration (W. Danthanarayana, ed.). Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg. AN00292

 Lenschow,DH (ed.)1986 Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. American Meteorological Society: Boston. 269 pp. [Chs on pp. 163 (Chadwick & Gossard) and 183 (Kropfli) mention insects as radar targets.] AN01170

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW 1986 Using the USDA-ARS insect radar to monitor honey bee drone activity. American Bee Journal 126(12):832. AN02090

 Mascanzoni,D, Wallin,H 1986 The harmonic radar: a new method of tracing insects in the field. Ecological Entomology 11:387-390. AN00894

 Puhakka,T, Koistinen,J, Smith,P 1986 Doppler radar observation of a sea-breeze front. Pp. JP198-JP201 in Proc. 23rd Conf. on Radar Meteorology and Conf. on Cloud Physics, Snowmass, Colorado, Sep 22-26 1986. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN01167

 Puhakka,T, Saarikivi,P 1986 Doppler radar observations of horizontal roll vortices in Finland. Pp. JP194-JP197 in Proc. 23rd Conf. on Radar Meteorology and Conf. on Cloud Physics, Snowmass, Colorado, Sep 22-26 1986. American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA. AN01166

 Rainey,RC 1986 Glenn Willard Schaefer (1930-1986). Antenna 10(4):163-165. AN02115

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1986 Orientation at night by high-flying insects. Pp. 71-87 in Insect Flight: Dispersal and Migration (W. Danthanarayana, ed.). Springer Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg. AN00126

 Wolf,WW, Sparks,AN, Pair,SD, Westbrook,JK, Truesdale,FM 1986 Radar observations and collections of insects in the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 221-234 in Insect Flight: Dispersal and Migration (W. Danthanarayana, ed.). Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg. AN00075

 Wolf,WW, Westbrook,JK, Sparks,AN 1986 Relationship between radar entomological measurements and atmospheric structure in south Texas during March and April 1982. Pp. 84-97 in Long-range migration of moths of agronomic importance to the United States and Canada: specific examples of occurrence and synoptic weather patterns conducive to migration. ARS-43 (AN Sparks, ed.). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: **place**. AN00391


 Bent,GA, Carter,N, Harrington,R, Tatchell,GM, Taylor,MS, Woiwod,IP 1987 The present status and future developments in the Rothamsted insect survey. Pp. 201-207 in Aphid Migration and Forecasting: ‘Euraphid’ Systems in European Community Countries. Commission of the European Communities: Luxembourg. AN01047

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,ORJr 1987 Detection and monitoring of honeybee drone congregation areas by radar. Apidologie 18:163-172. AN00072

 Miller,S 1987 Migration team tracks night flyers. Agricultural Research 35(August):6-9. AN02103

 Pair,SD, Raulston,JR, Rummel,DR, Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Sparks,AN, Schuster,MF 1987 Development and production of corn earworm and fall armyworm in the Texas high plains: evidence for reverse fall migration. The Southwestern Entomologist 12:89-99. AN00395

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Farrow,RA 1987 The migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Delphacidae) and other Hemiptera associated with rice during the dry season in the Philippines: a study using radar, visual observations, aerial netting and ground trapping. Bull. Ent. Res. 77:145-169. AN00793

 Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Pair,SD, Sparks,AN, Raulston,JR 1987 Empirical moth flight behavior in the nocturnal planetary boundary layer. Pp. 263-264 in Preprints, 18th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology and 8th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, September 15-18, 1987, W. Lafayette, Indiana.  American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA. AN02146

 Wolf,WW, Loper,GM, Greneker,G 1987 Doppler radar for detecting insects. Paper no.87-3049, pp. **-** in Proc. 1987 Summer Meeting Amer. Soc. of Agric. Engineers, Baltimore, MD, June 28-July 1 1987. A.S.A.E.: St Joseph, MI. 19 pp. AN02024


 Beerwinkle,KR, Lopez,JD, Witz,JA 1988 Emergence and radar-observed movement of Heliothis zea from senescent corn in east-central Texas. Pp. 329-332 in Proc. 1988 Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences, **place**, **date**. **Publisher**: **Place**. AN02020

 Chen,RL, Bao,XZ, Wang,SY, Sun,YJ, Li,LQ, Lin,JR 1988 A radar equipment for entomological observation and its test. Acta Ecologica Sinica 8:176-182. [In Chinese, English summary.] AN01984

 Drake,VA, Farrow,RA 1988 The influence of atmospheric structure and motions on insect migration. Annual Review of Entomology 33:183-210. AN00113

 Holt,AR, Humphries,RG, McGuinness,R 1988 Some advantages of using polarisation diversity illustrated through the analysis of radar data from a storm in central Alberta. Pp. 237-240 in Proc. of IGARSS ’88 Symposium, Edinburgh, Scotland, 13-16 Sept 1988. ESA Publications Division: **Place**. AN02483

 Irwin,ME, Thresh,JM 1988 Long-range aerial dispersal of cereal aphids as virus vectors in North America. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B321:421-446. AN00969

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,ORJr 1988 The use of radar to document honey-bee (Apis mellifera) drone flight behavior. Pp. 193-198 (ch. 23) in Africanized Honeybees and Bee Mites (GR Needman, RE Page, M Delfinado-Baker, CE Bowman, eds). Ellis Horwood Limited: Chichester. AN00347

 Rainey,RC, Haggis,MH 1988 Spruce budworm moth flight: possible implications of field research findings for population dynamics and management. Pp. 275-279 in Proceedings. Symposium on the Aerial Application of Pesticides in Forestry. Report AFA-TN-18 (NRC no. 29197). (The Associate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Aviation, ed.). National Research Council Canada: ?Place of publication?. AN00962

 Reynolds,D 1988 Twenty years of radar entomology. Antenna 12:44-49. AN00145

 Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR 1988 A migration of grasshoppers, particularly Diabolocatantops axillaris (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), in the West African Sahel. Bull. Ent. Res. 78:251-271. AN00409

 Wallin,H, Ekbom,BS 1988 Movements of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting cereal fields: a field tracing study. Oecologia 77:39-43. AN02057


 Aldhous,AC, 1989 An Investigation of the Polarisation Dependence of Insect Radar Cross Sections at Constant Aspect. PhD thesis, Ecological Physics Research Group, Cranfield Institute of Technology. AN03240

 Christian,TW, Wakimoto,RM 1989 The relationship between radar reflectivities and clouds associated with horizontal roll convection on 8 August 1982. Monthly Weather Review 117,1530-1544. AN00803

 Coelho,JR 1989 The effect of thorax temperature and body size on flight speed in honey bee drones. American Bee Journal 129:811-812. [Talk abstract only.] AN02076

 Chen,RL, Bao,XZ, Drake,VA, Farrow,RA, Wang,SY, Sun,YJ, Zhai,BP 1989 Radar observations of the spring migration into northeastern China of the oriental armyworm moth, Mythimna separata, and other insects. Ecological Entomology 14:149-162. AN00819

 Drake,VA, Farrow,RA 1989 The `aerial plankton’ and atmospheric convergence. Trends Ecol. Evol. 4:381-385. AN01272

 Hobbs,SE, Wolf,WW 1989 An airborne radar for studying insect migration. Bull. Ent. Res. 79:693-704. AN00915

 Hockmann,P, Schlomberg,P, Wallin,H, Weber,F 1989 [Patterns of movement and orientation of the carabid beetle Carabus auronitens in a Westphalian oak-hornbeam forest (radar tracking and recapture experiments)]. Abhandlungen aus dem Westfalischen Museum fur Naturkunde 51(1):1-71. AN02097

 Holt,AR, Humphries,RG, McGuinness,R 1989 The polarisation characteristics of some clear-air phenomena. Pp. 401-402 in Proc. 24th Conference on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, Florida, March 27-31 1989. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. AN01210

 Leskinen,M 1989 Signal processing in a Doppler weather radar. Pp. **-** in Proc. URSI/IEEE XV Conf. on Radio Science, Tampere, Finland, Nov 20-21 1989. (T. Jarska, ed.). Tampere Univ. of Tech. Signal Processing Lab.: ?Tampere?. AN01165

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,ORJr 1989 Update on the use of a ground-based X-band radar to study the flight of honey-bee drones. American Bee Journal 128(12):805. AN02089

 Rainey,RC 1989 Migration and Meteorology. Flight Behaviour and the Atmospheric Environment of Locusts and Other Migrant Pests. Oxford University Press: Oxford. 314 pp. [Especially chs 5, 6.] AN01239

 Riley,JR 1989a Recent developments in the application of radar to biology: millimetric and 3-cm systems for studies of insect flight. Pp. 210-214 in Proc. 10th International Symposium on Biotelemetry, July 31- August 5 1988, Fayetteville, Arkansas (CJ Amlaner, ed.). **Publisher**: **Place**. AN00835

 Riley,JR 1989b Orientation by high-flying insects at night: observations and theories. Paper 21 in Orientation and Navigation – Birds, Humans and Other Animals. Papers Presented at the 1989 Conference of the Royal Institute of Navigation, Cardiff, 1989. Royal Institute of Navigation: **Place**. AN00836

 Riley,JR 1989c Remote sensing in entomology. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 34:247-271. AN00662

 van den Ent,LJ 1989 Individual walking behaviour of the carabid Carabus problematicus Herbst in a Dutch forest has been recorded by a portable radar-detection-system. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 39:104. AN02088


 Chen,RL et al. 1990 Application of radar to research on oriental armyworm migration. Pp. 293-321 (ch. 13) in Physiology and Ecology of Oriental Armyworm (CS Lin, RL Chen, XY Su, BH Hu & XM Cai, eds.). Beijing University Press:Beijing. [In Chinese.] AN02423

 Dickison,RBB 1990 Detection of mesoscale synoptic features associated with dispersal of spruce budworm moths in eastern Canada. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328:607-617. AN01245

 Drake,VA,1990 The “Scanning Radar Microscope”: a radar configuration for microscale meteorological research. Pp. 603-609 in Proc. First Australian Radar Conference (“Radarcon 90”), Adelaide, Australia, 18-20 April 1990 (DJ Heilbronn, ed.). Defence Science and Technology Organization: Salisbury, South Australia. AN00961

 Drake,VA 1990 Methods for studying adult movement in Heliothis. Pp. 109-121 (ch. 10) in Heliothis: Research Methods and Prospects (MP Zalucki, ed.). Springer-Verlag: New York. AN01099

 Gossard,EE 1990 Radar research on the atmospheric boundary layer. Pp. 477-527 in Radar in Meteorology (D Atlas, ed.). American Meteorological Society: Boston. 806 pp. AN01697

 Hardy,KR, Gage,KS 1990 The history of radar studies of the clear atmosphere. Pp. 130-142 in Radar in Meteorology (D Atlas, ed.). American Meteorological Society: Boston. 806 pp. AN01696

 Leskinen,M 199x Hyonteiset ja saatutkalla mitattava kaiku. Univ. of Helsinki Dept. of Meteorology Tech. Rep. no. 7. [In Finnish, with English abstract.] AN01168 [Year of publication requires confirmation.]

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,OR 1990 Summary of studies attempting to influence honey bee drone flight direction – radar observations. American Bee Journal 130:804. AN02102

 Rainey,RC, Joyce,RJV 1990 An airborne radar system for Desert Locust control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328:585-606. AN01244

 Riley,JR 1990 Radar and satellite imagery in insect pest control. Chemistry and Industry (16 April 1990):254-257. AN01381

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1990 Nocturnal grasshopper migration in West Africa: transport and concentration by the wind, and implications for air-to-air control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328:655-672. AN01045

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD, Cheng,XN, Zhang,XX, Xu,GM, Cheng,JY, Bao,AD, Zhai,BP 1990 Using radar to observe brown planthopper (BPH) migration in China. International Rice Research Newsletter 15:29-30. AN00980

 Wolf,WW, Westbrook,JK, Raulston,J, Pair,SD, Hobbs,SE 1990 Recent airborne radar observations of migrant pests in the United States. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328:619-630. AN01246


 Achtemeier,GL 1991a Observations of turbulent boundary-layer interaction with a thunderstorm outflow – a possible wake region energy source. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 55:309-324. AN02056

 Achtemeier,GL 1991b The use of insects as tracers for “clear-air” boundary-layer studies by Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 8:746-765. AN01418

 Achtemeier,GL 1991c Grasshopper responses to rapid vertical displacements within a “clear air” boundary layer as observed by Doppler radar. Pp. 114-121 in Proc. 10th Conf. Biomet. & Aerobiol., Salt Lake City, Utah, September 1991 (JK Westbrook, DM Driscoll, eds). American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. [Conference version of Achtemeier (1992) (AN01185).] AN01707

 Beerwinkle,KR, Lopez,JDJr, Witz,JA, Schleider,PG, Eyster,RS 1991 Seasonal radar observations of upper-air nocturnal insect activity and related meteorology in east-central Texas. Pp. 107-113 in Proc. 10th Conf. Biomet. & Aerobiol., Salt Lake City, Utah, September 1991 (JK Westbrook, DM Driscoll, eds). American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. AN01706

 Coelho,JR 1991 Heat transfer and body temperature in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drones and workers. Journal of Economic Entomology. 20:1627-1635. AN03041

 Drake,VA 1991 Methods for studying adult movement in Heliothis. Pp. 109-121 (ch. 10) in Heliothis: Research Methods and Prospects (MP Zalucki, ed.). Springer-Verlag: New York. AN01099

 Hobbs,SE 1991 A radar signal processor for biological applications. Meas. Sci. Technol. 2:415-418. AN01302

 Keenan,T, Potts, RJ, Wilson, J 1991 The Darwin Area Forecasting Experiment: description and preliminary results. Aust. Meteorol. Mag. 39:211-222. AN02157

 Larkin,RP 1991a Flight speeds observed with radar, a correction: slow “birds” are insects. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 29:221-224. AN02085

 Larkin,RP 1991b Sensitivity of NEXRAD algorithms to echoes from birds and insects. Pp. 203-205 in Proc. 25th Radar Meteorology Conf., Paris, France, June 1991. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. AN02123

 Pair,SD, Raulston,JR, Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Adams,SD 1991 Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) outbreak originating in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, 1989. Florida Entomologist 74:200-213 AN02061

 Riley,JR, Cheng,X-n, Zhang,X-x, Reynolds,DR, Xu,G-m, Smith,AD, Cheng,J-y, Bao,A-d, Zhai,B-p 1991 The long-distance migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Delphacidae) in China: radar observations of mass return flight in autumn. Ecol. Entomol. 16:471-489. AN01398

 Wallin,H 1991 Movement patterns and foraging tactics of a caterpillar hunter inhabiting alfalfa fields. Functional Ecology 5:740-749 AN02060

 Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Adams,SD, Rogers,CE, Pair,SD, Raulston,JR 1991 Observations and analyses of atmospheric transport of noctuids from northeastern Mexico and south-central Texas. Pp. 100-103 in Proc. 10th Conf. Biomet. & Aerobiol., Salt Lake City, Utah, September 1991 (JK Westbrook, DM Driscoll, eds). American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. AN01704

 Xue,XQ 1991 [Forecasting Forest Pests]. China Forestry Publishing House: ?Beijing. 484 pp. [In Chinese; see pp. 25, 32.] AN01461


 Achtemeier,GL 1992 Grasshopper response to rapid vertical displacements within a “clear air” boundary layer as observed by Doppler radar. Environ. Entomol. 21:921-938. AN01185

 Chen,RL, Bao,XZ, Wang,SY, Sun,YJ, Li,LQ, Liu,JR 1992 An observation on the migration of meadow moth by radar. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 19(2): 171-174. [In Chinese, English summary.] AN02058

 Considine,M-L 1992 Coming: pest forecasting for cotton. Rural Research (156):24-27. AN01425

 Jordan,JR, McLaughlin,S 1992 Ultrahigh resolution Cn2 profiles derived from an FM-CW radar. Pp. 287-293 in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing. Proceedings of a Conference held on 21-23 April 1992 at Orlando, Florida. Proceedings Series vol. 1688. (Editor?). Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE): ?place?. AN02104

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,OR 1992 Honey bee drone flyways and congregation areas – radar observations. J. Kansas Entomological Soc. 65:223-230. AN02012

 Riley,JR 1992 A millimetric radar to study the flight of small insects. Electronics and Communication Engineering Journal (February 1992): 43-48. AN01380

 Riley,JR, Armes,NJ, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD 1992 Nocturnal observations on the emergence and flight behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the post-rainy season in central India. Bull. Entomol. Res. 82:243-256. AN01379

 Sauvageot,H 1992 Radar Meteorology. Artech House: Norwood, MA. 366 pp. [See pp. 252-256, 270-273.] AN01812


 Beerwinkle,KR, Witz,JA, Schleider,PG 1993 An automated, vertical looking, X-band radar system for continuously monitoring aerial insect activity. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engineers 36:965-970. AN02018

 Drake,VA 1993 Insect-monitoring radar: a new source of information for migration research and operational pest monitoring. Pp. 452-455 in Pest Control and Sustainable Agriculture (SA Corey, DJ Dall, WM Milne, eds). CSIRO Publications: Melbourne. AN01680

 Drake,VA, Fitt,GP, Rochester,WA 1993 Methodology for a comprehensive field study of adult movement in Helicoverpa spp. Pp. 456-459 in Pest Control and Sustainable Agriculture (SA Corey, DJ Dall, WM Milne, eds). CSIRO Publications: Melbourne. AN01681

 Kennedy,PJ, Young,MR 1993 Radar tracking the movements of ground beetles in a farmland mosaic. Aberdeen Letters in Ecology 6:18-19. AN02095

 Loper,GM, Wolf,WW, Taylor,ORJr 1993 Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1929-1938. AN02023

 McLaughlin,SA 1993 Potential errors in Doppler radar wind measurements caused by migrating point targets as seen by the ARL FM-CW radar. Pp. 643-645 in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Radar Meteorol., Norman OK, 24-28 May 1993. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN01938

 Ming,JI, Jin,H, Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD, Wang,WL, Cheng,JY, Cheng,XN 1993 Autumn southward ‘return’ migration of the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus in China. Med. Vet. Entomol. 7:323-327. AN01832

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1993 Radar monitoring of locusts and other migratory insects. Pp. 51-53 in World Agriculture 1993 (A Cartwright, ed.) Sterling Publications: London. AN01840

 Riley,JR, Smith,AD, Gregory,RD 1993 A radar technique for automatically monitoring insect migration and bio-diversity. Pp. 310-317 in Biotelemetry XII (P Mancini, S Fioretti, C Cristalli, R Bedini, eds). Editrice Universitaria Litograpfia Felice: Pisa. [A version of this paper appeared in Alliance for Aerobiology Research workshop report, (SA Isard, ed.), pp. 28-32. Alliance for Aerobiology Research Writing Committee: Champaign, Ill. (1993, 40 pp.)] AN01691

 Smith,AD, Riley,JR, Gregory,RD 1993 A method for routine monitoring of the aerial migration of insects by using a vertical-looking radar. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 340:393-404. AN01692

 Wolf,WW, Vaughn,CR, Harris,R, Loper,GM 1993 Insect radar cross-sections for aerial density measurements and target classification. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 36:949-954. AN01761

 Zhai,BP, Zhang,XX 1993 Behaviour of migrating insects: adaptation and selection to atmospheric environment. Acta Ecologica Sinica 13:356-363. AN02132


 Beerwinkle,KR, Lopez,JDJr, Schleider,PG, Lingren,PD 1994 Annual patterns of aerial insect densities at altitudes from 500 to 2300 metres in east-central Texas indicated by continuously-operating vertical-looking radar. Pp. 415-418 in Proc. 21st Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 11th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., San Diego, 7-10 March 1994. American Meteorological Society: Boston. [Conference version of AN02017.] AN01799

 Beerwinkle,KR, Lopez,JDJr, Witz,JA, Schleider,PG, Eyster,RS, Lingren,PD 1994 Seasonal radar and meteorological observations associated with nocturnal insect flight at altitudes to 900 meters. Environmental Entomology 23:676-683. AN01835

 Cheng,XN, Zhang,XX, Cheng,JY, Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1994 Radar observations of the autumn migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in the east of China J. Nanjing Agric. Univ. 17(3):24-32 AN02048

 Drake,VA, Harman,IT, Bourne,IA, Woods,GJC 1994 Simultaneous entomological and atmospheric profiling: A novel technique for studying the biometeorology of insect migration. Pp. 444-447 in Proc. 21st Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 11th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., San Diego, 7-10 March 1994. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN01771

 Drake,VA, Rochester,WA 1994 The formation of layer concentrations by migrating insects. Pp. 411-414 in Proc. 21st Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 11th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., San Diego, 7-10 March 1994. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN01770

 Hays,SM 1994 Migratory pests: hit ’em with all we’ve got. Agricultural Research 42(12):4-8. AN02027

 Kennedy,PJ 1994 The distribution and movement of ground beetles in relation to set-aside arable land. Pp. 439-444 in Carabid Beetles: Ecology and Evolution. (K Desender et al., eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers: ?Place. AN02096

 McLaughlin,SA 1994 FM-CW radar observations of insects and birds in the planetary boundary layer at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Pp. 419-422 in Proc. 21st Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 11th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., San Diego, 7-10 March 1994. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN01800

 Riley,JR 1994 Locusts and radar. Catalyst: GCSE Science Review. 5(2):7-9. AN02093

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD, Rosenberg,LJ, Cheng,XN, Zhang,XX, Xu,GM, Cheng,JY, Bao,AD, Zhai,BP, Wang,HK 1994 Observations on the autumn migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and other pests in east central China. Bull. Entomol. Res. 84:389-402. AN01833

 Sun,YJ, Chen,RL, Bao,XZ, Wang,SY, Zhai,BP, Xie,WM 1994 Progress in researches on entomological radar and its applied technology. Pp. 74-78 in Proceedings of the First Entomology Symposium of Northeastern China . Science and Technology Press of Liaoning Province: Shenyang. AN02272

 Wallin,H, Ekbom,B 1994 Influence of hunger level and prey densities on movement patterns in three species of Pterostichus beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Environ. Entomol. 23(5):1171-181. AN02315

 Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Lingren,PD 1994 Flight speed and heading of migrating corn earworm moths relative to drifting tetroons. Pp. 423-426 in Proc. 21st Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 11th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., San Diego, 7-10 March 1994. American Meteorological Society: ?Boston?. AN01801

 Wilson,JW, Weckwerth,TM, Vivekanandan,J, Wakimoto,RM, Russell,RW 1994 Boundary layer clear-air radar echoes: origin of echoes and accuracy of derived winds. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 11:1184-1206. AN02062

 Wolf,WW, Westbrook,JK, Raulston,JR, Pair,SD, Lingren,PD 1994 Radar detection of ascent of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths from corn in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Pp. 1065-1074 in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Biometeorol., Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12-18 September 1993, Part 2 vol. 3 (AR Maarouf, NN Barthakur, WO Haufe, eds). Environment Canada: Downsview, Ontario, Canada. AN01978


 Beerwinkle,KR, Lopez,JDJr, Schleider,PG, Lingren,PD 1995 Annual patterns of aerial insect densities at altitudes from 500 to 2400 metres in east-central Texas indicated by continuously-operating vertically-oriented radar. Southwestern Entomologist Suppl. (18):63-79. AN02017

 Chen,R-L, Sun,Y-J, Wang,S-Y, Zhai,B-P, Bao,X-Y 1995 Migration of the Oriental Armyworm Mythimna separata in East Asia in relation to weather and climate. I. Northeastern China. Pp. 93-104 (ch. 4) in Insect Migration: Tracking Resources through Space and Time. (VA Drake & AG Gatehouse, ed.). Cambridge Univ. Press: Cambridge. AN01905

 Clark,WL, Warnock,JM, VanZandt,TE, Gage,KS, Eklund,WL 1995 Scattering from clear air, precipitation and biological targets: multiple frequency profiler studies. Pp. 281-283 in Preprints, 27th Radar Meteorology Conf., Vail, Colorado, USA, 9-13 October 1995.. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02128

 Eaton,FD, McLaughlin,SA, Hines,JR 1995 A new frequency-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology. Radio Science 30(1):75-88. AN02036

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD, Edwards,AS, Zhang,XX, Cheng,XN, Wang,HK, Cheng,JY, Zhai,BP 1995 Observations of the autumn migration of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other moths in eastern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85:397-414. AN01998

 Sun,Y-J, Chen,R-L, Wang,S-Y, Xie,W-M 1995 Radar observations of the flight of Chinese Pine Moth Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu. Pp. 204-208 in Progress in Study on Plant Protection. (Plant Protection Society of China, ed.). Science and Technology Press of China: Beijing. [In Chinese, English abstract.] AN02271

 Westbrook,JK, Eyster,RS, Wolf,WW, Lingren,PD, Raulston,JR 1995 Migration pathways of corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) indicated by tetroon trajectories. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 73:67-87. AN02059

 Wolf,WW, Westbrook,JK, Raulston,JR, Pair,SD, Lingren,PD 1995 Radar observations of orientation of noctuids migrating from corn fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Southwestern Entomologist Suppl. (18):45-61. AN02015


 Carreck,NL 1996 The use of harmonic radar to track flying bees. Bee Craft 78(4):104-109. AN02035

 Dingle,H 1996 Migration: the Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press: New York. 474 pp. [See radar in index.] AN02028

 Hobbs,SE, Wolf,WW 1996 Developments in airborne entomological radar. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 13:58-61. AN02109

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1996 Preferential flight by Desert Locusts on favourable winds. Pp. 436-437 in Proc. 2nd Conf. Agric. For. Meteorol. & 12th Conf. Biometeorol. and Aerobiol., Atlanta, 28 January-2 February 1996. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02049

 Riley,JR, Smith,AD, Reynolds,DR, Edwards,AS, Osborne,JL, Williams,IH, Carreck,NL, Poppy,GM 1996 Tracking bees with harmonic radar. Nature 379:29-30. AN02034

 Roland,J, McKinnon,G, Backhouse,C, Taylor,PD 1996 Even smaller radar tags for insects. Nature 381:120. AN02052

 Russell,RW, Wilson,JW 1996 Aerial plankton detected by radar. Nature 381:200-201. AN02053

 Sauvageot,H, Despaux,G 1996 The clear-air coastal vespertine radar bands. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(4):673-681. AN02086

 Smith,AD, Riley,JR, 1996 Signal processing in a novel radar system for monitoring insect migration. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 15:267-278. AN02122

 Xu,XX, Wu,J, Wu,XA, Li,D, Rao,QZ 1996 A study on ground penetrating radar exploration of subterranean termites in dykes and dams. Acta Entomologia Sinica 39:46-52. AN02112


 Burt,PJA, Pedgley,DE 1997 Nocturnal insect migration: effects of local winds. Advances in Ecological Research 27:61-92. AN02131

 Caldwell,M 1997 The wired butterfly. Discover ***(February 1997):40-48. AN02154 [Harmonic-radar study.]

 Charrier,S, Petit,S, Burel,F 1997 Movements of Abax parallelepipedus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in woody habitats of a hedgerow network landscape: a radio-tracing study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 61:133-144. AN02616 [Harmonic-radar study.]

 Lohmeier,SP, Sekelsky,SM, Firda,JM, Sadowy,GA, McIntosh,RE 1997 Classification of particles in stratiform clouds using the 33 and 95 GHz polarimetric cloud profiling radar systems (CPRS). IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 35(2):256-270. AN02400

 Lövei,GL, Stringer,IAN, Devine,CD, Cartellieri,M 1997 Harmonic radar – a method using inexpensive tags to study invertebrate movement on land. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21:187-193. AN02324

 Osborne,JL, Williams,IH, Carreck,NL, Poppy,GM, Riley,JR, Smith,AD, Reynolds,DR, Edwards,AS 1997 Harmonic radar: a new technique for investigating bumblebee and honey bee foraging flight Acta Horticulturae 437:159-163. AN02135

 Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR 1997 Flight behaviour and migration of insect pests. Radar studies in developing countries. NRI Bulletin No. 71. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich: Chatham Maritime, U.K. 114 pp. AN02164

 Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR, Armes,NJ, Cooter,RJ, Tucker,MR, Colvin,J 1997 Techniques for quantifying insect migration. Pp. 111-145 in Methods in Ecological and Agricultural Entomology (DR Dent & MP Walton, eds) CAB International: Wallingford, UK. AN02158

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR 1997 Vertical-looking radar as a means to improve forecasting and control of desert locusts. Pp. 47-54 in New Strategies in Locust Control (S Krall, R Peveling & D Ba Diallo, eds) Birkhauser Verlag: Basel. AN02050

 Sun,YJ 1997a Overseas research of entomological radar and its application. World Agriculture (Beijing) 1997(2):50-52. [In Chinese.] AN02397

 Sun,YJ 1997b The first entomological radar and its application in China. World Agriculture (Beijing) 1997(8):40-41. [In Chinese.] AN02422

 Sun,YJ 1997c Progress in study on radar entomology. Pp. 2-9 in Progress of Entomology (X-K Yang & H Wu, eds). China Forestry Publishing House: Beijing. AN02396

 Sun,YJ, Chen,RL 1997 The measurement of available distance for observing airborne insects by a radar. Entomological Knowledge (Beijing) 34(4):201-203. AN02399

 Russell,RW, Wilson,JW 1997 Radar-observed “fine-lines” in the optically clear boundary layer: reflectivity contributions from aerial plankton and its predators. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 82:235-262. AN02153


Drake,VA, Harman,IT, Hunter,DM 1998 Monitoring locust migratory flight with radar: an Australian field study. Pp. 313-316 in Preprints, Second Urban Environment Symposium & 13th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, November 2-6, 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02304

Drake,VA, Harman,IT, Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW 1998 Corn earworm migration trajectories in the Lower Rio Grande Valley observed with an Insect Monitoring Radar. Pp. 352-353 in Preprints, Second Urban Environment Symposium & 13th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, November 2-6, 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02305

Knight,CA, Miller,LJ 1998 Early radar echoes from small, warm cumulus: Bragg and hydrometeor scattering. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 55:2974-2992. AN02473

Kusunoki,K, Matsumura, T 1998 Our new challenge – observation of aerial plankton with meteorological radar. Insectarium 35:104-107. [In Japanese.] AN02424

Locatelli,JD, Stoelinga,MT, Hobbs,PV, Johnson,J 1998 Structure and evolution of an undular bore on the high plains and its effects on migrating birds. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79:1043-1060. AN03022

Moran,KP, Martner,BE, Post,MJ, Kropfli,RA, Welsh,DC, Widener,KB 1998 An unattended cloud-profiling radar for use in climate research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79(3):443-455. AN02481

Reynolds,D 1998 Radar techniques and insect pest management. Tropical Agriculture Association Newsletter 18(4):31-32,7. AN02266

 Riley,JR, Valeur,P, Smith,AD, Reynolds,DR, Poppy,GM, Löfstedt,C 1998 Harmonic radar as a means of tracking the pheromone-finding and pheromone-following flight of male moths. Journal of Insect Behavior 11:287-296. AN02269

Sun,YJ 1998 Researches on insect flight by radar in China. Pp. 138-144 in Resource Technology 1997: Beijing International Symposium Proceedings. China Forestry Publishing House: Beijing. AN02265

Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW 1998 Migratory flights of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), indicated by Doppler weather radar. Pp. 354-355 in Preprints, Second Urban Environment Symposium & 13th Conference on Biometeorology and Aerobiology, November 2-6, 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02309

Westbrook,JK, Wolf,WW, Allen,S, Ward,JD 1998 NEXRAD Doppler weather radar network: potential for areawide surveillance of pest insect migrations. Pp. 1304-1310 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 5-9, 1998, San Diego, CA, vol. 2. National Cotton Council: Memphis, TN, USA. AN03489

 Zrnić,DS, Ryzhkov,AV 1998 Observations of insects and birds with a polarimetric radar. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 36:661-668. AN02268


 Carreck,NL, Osborne,JL, Capaldi,EA, Riley,JR 1999 Tracking bees with radar. Bee World 80(3):124-131. AN02551

Colpitts,B, Luke,D, Boiteau,G, Doyle, M 1999 Harmonic radar identification tag for insect tracking. Pp. 602-606 in Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 9-12 1999 (M. Meng, ed). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: xxx. AN02425

 Osborne,JL, Clark,SJ, Morris,RJ, Williams,IH, Riley,JR, Smith,AD, Reynolds,DR, Edwards,AS 1999 A landscape-scale study of bumble bee foraging range and constancy, using harmonic radar. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:519-533. AN02353

 Renou,M, Berthier,A, Desbarats,L, Van der Pers,J, Guerrero,A, 1999 Actographic analysis of the effects of an esterase inhibitor on male moth responses to sex pheromone. Chem. Senses 24:423-428. AN02492

Riley,J 1999 Riding on the wind: a radar perspective of insect flight. Inaugural Lecture Series, the University of Greenwich. The University of Greenwich: London. 31 pp. AN02323

Riley,JR 1999 Radar returns from insects: implications for meteorological radars. Pp. 390-393 in Preprints, 29th International Conference on Radar Meteorology, 12-16 July 1999, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. American Meteorological Society: Boston. AN02346

 Riley,JR, Reynolds,DR, Smith,AD, Edwards,AS, Osborne,JL, Williams,IH, McCartney,HA 1999 Compensation for wind drift by bumble-bees. Nature 400:126. AN02338

 Russell,RW 1999 Precipitation scrubbing of aerial plankton: inferences from bird behavior. Oecologia 118:381-387. AN02379

 Sun,YJ, Chen,RL 1999 Studies of entomological radar technique for the observation and forecast of airborne oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Pp. 183-189 in Research Progress in Plant Protection and Plant Nutrition. (China Association of Agricultural Science Societies, compilers). China Agriculture Press: Beijing. AN02398

 Zhai,BP 1999 Tracking angels: 30 years of radar entomology. Acta Entomologica Sinica 42(3):315-326. AN02393


 Capaldi,EA, Smith,AD, Osborne,JL, Fahrbach,SE, Farris,SM, Reynolds,DR, Edwards,AS, Martin,A, Robinson,GE, Poppy,GM, Riley,JR 2000 Ontogeny of orientation flight in the honeybee revealed by harmonic radar. Nature 403:537-540. AN02381

 Chapman,RF 2000 Entomology in the twentieth century. Annual Review of Entomology 45:261-285. AN02465

Colpitts,B, Luke,DMcG, Boiteau,G 2000 Harmonic radar for insect flight pattern tracking. Pp. 302-306 in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, May 7-10 2000 (RW Creighton, J Ilow, eds). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: xxx. AN02426

 Hobbs, SE, Allsopp, K, Wolf, W 2000 Signal analysis for an entomological radar with a vertical nutating beam. College of Aeronautics Report 9919, 40 pp. Cranfield University: Cranfield, UK. AN02428

Fabry,F, Zawadzki,I 2000 Atmospheric physics as observed by a vertically pointing Doppler radar. Pp. 310-313 in Proceedings of the 13th International Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Reno, Nevada, USA, 14-18 August 2000. International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation: xxx. AN03225

Martner,BE, Moran,KP 2000 MMCR polarization measurements for evaluating stratus cloud and insect echoes. Tenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, March 13-17, 2000. Available online at ‹›. AN03075

 Nieminen, M, Leskinen, M, Helenius, J 2000 Doppler radar detection of exceptional mass-migration of aphids into Finland. International Journal of Biometeorology 44:172-181. AN02429

 Smith,AD, Reynolds,DR, Riley,JR 2000 The use of vertical-looking radar to continuously monitor the insect fauna flying at altitude over southern England. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90:265-277. AN02380

Williams, IH, Osborne, JL, Riley, JR, Smith, AD, Reynolds, DR, Carreck, NL, Poppy, GM 1999 Harmonic radar: progress in using this new technique to study bee flight. Pp. 135-139 in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Costa Rica, 18-19 August, 1996. International Bee Research Association: Cardiff. AN02427

Bibliography continues on page Bibliography 2001-2015

This page last revised 2022Jan17.